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Design

Occurrence of a fire may often result in loss of serviceability and/or the collapse of a structure. Economic damage, and more importantly loss of life, are major risks. Engineers are obliged to certify structural safety, to provide sufficient time to evacuate and await the arrival of emergency services. Codes and standards help engineers with rules for assessing fire safety.

Advanced Fire Safety Design

We offer a range of advanced fire safety design services
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Computational Fluid Dynamics

Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) is a branch of fluid mechanics that uses numerical methods and algorithms to solve and analyse problems that involve fluid flows.

 

Using validated computer modelling tools, we can perform calculations to simulate the movement of smoke, heat and toxic gasses within the boundaries of complex buildings spaces.

 

Heat Radiation Analysis

Building regulations set out requirements for the control of the spread of fire between adjacent buildings. Stars Fire & Safety uses graphic software packages that enable us to calculate fire temperatures and analyses complex facades.

 

This enables the incorporation of windows in buildings with close boundaries and is an excellent tool to calculate the spread of fire in buildings during construction.

 

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Evacuation Modelling

Evacuation calculations are increasingly becoming a part of performance-based analyses to assess the level of life safety provided in buildings. In some cases, engineers are using back-of-the-envelope (hand) calculation to assess life safety, and in others, evacuation models are being used. The occupants are assumed to be standing at the doorway to the stair on each floor as soon as the evacuation begins.

The calculation focuses mainly on points of constriction throughout the building (commonly the door to the outside) and calculates the time for the occupants to flow past these points and to the outside.

To achieve a more realistic evacuation calculation, engineers have been looking to evacuation computer models to assess a building’s life safety.Evacuation modelling allows us to assess crowd movement in complex building designs to optimise and refine the escape arrangements.

Structural Analysis
Using computer modelling techniques, we assist structural engineers in optimising the fire safety in building designs. We try to enhance the capabilities of computational methods to study the effect of realistic fire on buildings, all the way to the burn-out and cooling phases, or to collapse.

The main problem, of course, is that a prescriptive time–temperature curve does not reflect the actual temperature of various structural members exposed to a realistic fire that varies in time and space. To compound the difficulty, actual structures have many redundancies, and the increase in structural demand due to thermal expansion coupled with material softening due to heating may not necessarily mean imminent collapse if alternate load paths still exist. These problems point to the need to treat fire as a realistic structural load.

We undertake fire severity calculations, analyse thermal response and assess structural performance to determine a cost-effective approach to fire protection.

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However, these rules do not necessarily guarantee optimal design, or are applicable to all types of structures. In these cases, numerical analysis become indispensable. During fire, thermal strains develop within the structure, these add to strains from mechanical loading, shrinkage and creep.

 

Materials also undergo thermal degradation of their mechanical properties, this may result in damage to the structure: cracking in concrete and plastification in steel.

Stars Fire & Safety offers all of the necessary analysis functionality to assess structural behaviour under fire, also taking into account pre-existing structural damage due, for example, to an earthquake.

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Our Design Expertise

Stars Fire & Safety undertakes the following types of Design aspects.

Fire Detection and Alarm Systems

Mass Notification Systems

Fire Suppression Systems

Low-Level, High-Expansion Foam Systems

Low-Level AFFF Foam Systems

Special Hazard Suppression Systems

Smoke Control Systems

Performance-Based Design

Fire, Smoke and Egress Modeling

Fire Protection Master Planning

Water Supply Analysis

Building Information Modelling

Specification Development

Want to know more about our Design Expertise?